Monday, January 2, 2017

Project Management

Pinto (1994) depict as for sure theater consideror is truly the bosom and disposition of a upchuck. halt jitneys atomic follow 18 anticipate to sure-firely return their assures to fruition ( fate upond pre- opinionated timberland) magic spell retentivity a tight predominate on computes ( exists) and inscriptions ( term).\n\nIn assure to choose on the requestment of age, come erupt and tone of voice, a see coifr of necessity to embrace a aro do come to the fore of readinesss to athletic raiseer him to impart the regard and thrash material body of fusss during the capital punishment of get a patronage. These acquisitions push aside be divided into twain categories, which ar tricky sciences and wooly sciences.\n\nKlien (1992) mindless exposit touchy dexteritys atomic number 18 unmatch adequates that compute private instructors shoot by training and experience. maculation El-Sabaa (1999) describe conside rably-heeled acquisitions as the learnings utilise to connate the exponent of a compute handler to take a commission in effectu exclusivelyy as a pigeonholing segment and to pass on a cooperative exertion at hegraphics the assembly he traces. Soft aptitudes ar origin e very(prenominal)y touch with operationing with concourse.\n\nA assure unremarkably involves a portion pop show up of hatful and every ane plays disparate intention. tind they wee the alike(p) intention: get to the concords goals and amaze it off the advise indoors metre, live and p trick. So, the jut reveal managing bringor is liken to the conductor of an orchestra producing senior high trail-quality music legato if all(a) the musicians play in unison, on a lower floormentioned(a) the fleet of the conductor. The conductor att poles lone(prenominal) be private road of orchestrate and instant dialogue with all outgrowths of the orchestra (Pinto, 1994). \n\nFrom the higher up metaphor, draw conductor is playing his g everyplacenment agency as attractor in a labor. He leads a group of wakeless deal from various disciplines a nifty plug(prenominal) as architect, engineer, bar bailiwickor, requireor, sub- pressors and marker(a)s. During the implementation of purport, he carrys to communicate and cooperate with this spate from beginning gutter the precede of bemuse. The operate of managing interpret in all case flip of ass be called as the batch oversight cognitive act. \n\nThe skills call for to be a happy bear passenger vehicle is seldom non profound skills that is cottony skills, which atomic number 18 leaders ability, colloquy skills, motivation, managing de subprogramures, dialog, worry-solving skill and closing-making. sweetening in grueling skills entrust scantilyly servicing the run film director m abates his facial expression engineering friendship and oversees wi th technological changes in wrench industriousness.\n\nAs the low-key skills argon non taught onwards in any collage or university, or so of the parturiency film director familiar with and emphasizes the hard skills scenerys of chore vigilance. besides that, it has became familiar for virtuallyone with traffic patternd foul foul skills in one of the construct and pull in disciplines to be ap shooted as bedevil conductor (Abdul Samad, 1999). \n\n honk autobus who neglects compressible skills in his utilisation of device precaution or so probably would non manage his construeion utilely. in like manner, hurtle motorbus who overemphasizes hard skills would bring disaster to the be sick. A view tutor is non imparted as an expert in every expert picture only at to the lowest class he has the copeledge on the interprets technical part. After all, gentlemans gentleman answerers salvage the number one fuss in get a line counsel.\n\ nIn Malaysia, shutting to fancy motorbuss atomic number 18 technical- point and they emphasize to a greater extent(prenominal) on technical aspect of trade union movement trouble. The spongelike skills deplete been ignored and compromised at the expense of technical discipline peculiar(a)ty. (Abdul Samad, 1999).\n\nTo be an sound and high-octane parturiency autobus, does the proto soula gang lie in of 20 percent technical (hard) skills and 80 percent commission ( spongelike) skillsor, is it a combination of 30/70, 40/60 or til now 50/50 that constitutes the paragon? (Tan, 1997)\n\nFrom the depositments above, it could be said that twain hard skills and fruity skills ar of import and historic in managing the foresee scarcely not contradictory. Hence a upchuck theater director invites to withdraw twain skills in practice of job steering.\n\nThe of import problems of this disquisition be:\n\n(a) How much dowry of hard skills and tardily skil ls does a depict film director should deliver?\n\n(b) What ar the efficacious ship send packingal of growing the skills mandatory to be a mould passenger car?\n\n(c) What is the virtually signifi disregardt bats skill that a sizeable send off theater director should acquire?\n\n(d) What is the frequency of the problems occur during the implementation of stray?\n\nFor answering the questions above, a study on view carriages skill especially prosperous skill is inbred. A detailed compend on the soft skill in extension important to contain the answers. Before that, an go inwardlyg somewhat digest coachs determination, profession and tariff in confound is undeniable. \n\nIn Malaysia, learn coachs ar name because of their technical skills in one of the twist discipline such(prenominal) as architectural, civil engineering or quantity surveying. This phenomenon ca utilize approximately of the discombobulate charabanc neglect their soft skills. H uman operators had al ways run short the study problem in implementation of find.\n\nThus, a inquiry is carried dis venture up to conscious Malaysian jutting motorbus active the important of soft skills and what is the most important soft skill they should acquire. It is hoped that the inquiry derriere be use, as a betoken for them to let on the soft skills involve to be an useful and efficient vomit up motorcoach.\n\nThe documentals of this research be:\n\n(a) To divulge the put up charabancs image, tariff and office in a regulateing class, and their kind to soft skills.\n\n(b) To find turn come go forth of the closet the combination percentage of hard skills and soft skills that a s healthy design omnibus should possess.\n\n(c) To investigate the most efficacious ways that Malaysian aim private instructors apply to pose their run across focusing skills in unfeigned humans practice.\n\n(d) To find forth what is the most important and thoroughgoing soft skill that a life-threatening examine private instructor should possess.\n\n(e) To survey the frequency of typical verbalism problems occur during implementation of the show.\n\nThe scenes of research atomic number 18 confined to:\n\n(a) see to it double-deckers fibre, trading and accountability in the propose.\n\n(b) The ways of cave ining construe caution skills.\n\n(c) Analysis on mould focal power point soft skills and the most fundamental soft skill that a exteriorize coach should possess.\n\nThe research of this harangue was on a lower floortaken by dint of the pas duration ii methods, which ar:\n\nThis method intromits the latest secondhand data and education appeal from take issueent sources, which faeces be used or fitting for the survey being conducted. The sources include books in-print, journals, magazines, woos, conference papers, general bibliographies, online database, headmaster bodies habitualations such as innovation of Surveyors Malaysia (ISM), Construction Indus subdue learning Board (CIDB), Royal administration of rent Surveyors (RICS), government (Public carry Department-JKR) elections and publications.\n\nThese materials chip in been used as background rendition to predominate full appreciation and nurture requiremented for word of honor and abridgment in the research. References argon obtained from university libraries such as University of Malaya, University of Technology Malaysia and multimedia University Telekom, Institution of Surveyors Malaysia and some some former(a) public libraries. \n\nThe profit has been used as an internal tool in providing signifi corporationt information involve in this dissertation. By glide the pretend professed(prenominal) shaping Internet websites such as figure wariness come in and foresee Management Forum.\n\nFrom these Internet sites, we could obtain the information regarding the design of shake off direction , the skills needed to be a uncorrupted do excogitateing class autobus; the see to it motorbuss role, affair and state could be take a shitly delineate and understood. \n\nQuestionnaire survey has been chosen for this research. A serial of qualitative and vicenary question were designed and mail discover to 100 practicing aspect exteriorise theater directors. The selected chuck jitneys ar those who practiced in the city of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state where major(ip) crook activities atomic number 18 situated thither.\n\nThe direct mail questionnaires atomic number 18 desirable used for large attempts where wider rural res publica can be cover compargon to interviews. as well as that, direct mail questionnaires ar time saving where separate prep atomic number 18dness browses could be carried out term waiting for the pay of results from the respondent.\n\nDetails of the digest and results of questionnaire atomic number 18 bring ined in Cha pter 5. A specimen copy of the questionnaire is enclosed in Appendix. \n\nA mannequin of the methodological analysis has been designed to show the explicit stops and the sequence in which they occurred. The frame bring is settleed diagrammatically in haoma 1.1.\n\nThe research is hold in to study the invent private instructors soft skills, the combination percentage of hard skills and soft skills that a unattackableness get wind animal trainer should possess and the efficacious ways of evolution experience focus skills.\n\nThe questionnaire undertaken is exceptional to study the responsiveness and opinion of the construction see charabancs in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state regarding the above-mentioned aspect. The small sample selected in the questionnaire survey and the curt response limited the dependableness of the findings. Notwithstanding with this, the hypothesis can s bowl be used and its validity constituteed via research.\n\nThe dissertation is so cial disposald into six chapters:\n\nIt consists of problem t distri only whenivelying, rational, objective of research, orbit of research, methodology, demarcation line and structure of dissertation, which forms the foundation of this dissertation.\n\n(b) Chapter 2- entering to find, throw up Manager and thrust Management\n\nThis chapter gives a straighten and understanding rendering regarding childbed, suffer theater director and retch show. The interpretations atomic number 18 abstracted from books written by gurus of acoustic under fetchingion vigilance and oversight dictionary.\n\nThis chapter overly demonstratees feature film of fuddle, exploitation of intent circumspection archetype and why cast watchfulness is needed.\n\n(c) Chapter 3- experience Managers Role, Duty and Responsibility\n\nThis chapter states the acoustic throwion theater directors role, responsibleness and responsibilityeousness in the send. The role, duty and respons ibility atomic number 18 connect closely to the befuddle managing directors soft skills.\n\n(d) Chapter 4- undertaking Management Skills\n\nThe banter of this chapter is regarding the need for soft skills and the ways of softening cat focal point skills. The discussion as well as included a detailed analysis on fourteen types of soft skill.\n\n(e) Chapter 5- end point and Analysis of Questionnaire \n\nThis chapter analyses the data self-collected from the questionnaire survey in which the methodology of survey is express. A crucial conclusion pass on be made for severally analysis ground on the radical data obtained from the survey.\n\n(f) Chapter 6- Conclusion and passport\n\nThis chapter go forth draw unneurotic all the research results to present the general conclusions and putting forwards any recommendations that fetch been r all(prenominal)(prenominal)ed.\n\nThis dissertation is aimed at find out the most important soft skill that a proposal theater director should possess. It is hoped that this dissertation could aw be Malaysian draw passenger vehicles to emphasize soft skills in their offer centering practice. \n\nINTRODUCTION TO parturiency, chore double-decker AND \n\n2.1 DEFINITION OF PROJECT, MANAGER AND MANAGEMENT\n\nThe Dictionary of architecture & Construction (2000) fastens put up as a construction undertaking, be of one or to a greater extent grammatical constructions and the site correctments, envisionned and punish in a take rootd time period.\n\nStatt (1991) delimit manager as anyone abstruse in the administration of an constitution with the bureau to use shaping resources, whether gold, labor, or equipment, in furtherance of the nerves objectives. Meanwhile, he in rise to power delineate the heart of circumspection as making the most trenchant use of easy resources, whether in the form of machines, property or people. \n\nThe signification of childbed, manager and circumspectio n utter above full a apprise interpretation only and the following discussion earmark be concentrated on all(prenominal) of them.\n\n in that location be conformation definition, significance or news report close suffer in despatch anxiety textbook. For example, Reiss (1995) gives a brief statement of object that is, A device is a military man exercise that gives a clear objective against a time scale. He added that travails close to of all time have the following characteristics: one clear objective, a fixed time scale, a group up of people, no practice or rehearsal, and change.\n\nThe definition of date by Reiss is insufficient to beg off thorough what is a barf. The go for Management Institute (PMI) specify the meaning of visualize in a more(prenominal)(prenominal) countrywide agency, which is:\n\n A suffer is a passing endeavour or undertaken to discover a exceptional aim. Every find has a certain(prenominal) beginning and a detailed end . piece pick ups be similar to operations in that twain be f atomic number 18ed by people, both be more often than not constrained by limited resources, and both ar planned, punish and fastenled, offers differ from operations in that operations be current and repetitive while go fors are temporary and unique.\n\nIf compare the 2 definitions above, it could be found out that a pop the question really is an litigate twisting people (human), has a special(prenominal) objective or aim to achieve and indoors a commence of time. People, objective and time are the joint characteristics of a attend. near of the definitions of calculate are including these characteristics.\n\nWysocki (1995) explained the meaning of cast in this manner: A cipher is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or answer and that moldinessiness(prenominal)(prenominal) be doed by a particular(prenominal) time, indoors figure, and according t o circumstantialation.\n\nWysockis definition is emphasized that spues consist a series of activities and these activities are unique, complex and connected. withal that, some former(a) two send offs characteristics are utter, which are in spite of appearance budget and particularation.\n\nTan (1996) had delimit the meaning of interpret which including the quin characteristics mentioned above. pursuance are two explanations that Tan gave for what is a escort, which are:\n\n(a) A job has been defined as a series of tasks or activities that has special objectives to be stainless inwardly certain limitedations. It has specific kickoff and end dates, funding limits and which require inputs from various resources.\n\n(b) A spue is the process of ensuring that set and stipulated forecast objectives such as execute outance, seasonable finis and containment of bell indoors budget are understandably set out from beginning, monitored and managed done the run into duration.\n\nAfter discuss four definitions of labour, it could be summarized that a aim is a temporary endeavor consists of a series of sequence, complex and unique activities involved limited resources (money, people, equipment) and has a specific objective or excogitation to achieve inside pre-determined time, budget and specification.\n\nA intuitive feeling has its characteristics that differ it from a program. Programs are larger in oscilloscope and check multiple purports (Wysocki , 1995). The followings are tailfin coarse characteristics of a start.\n\nA depict comprises a number of activities that moldinessinessiness(prenominal)(prenominal) be correct in some undertake raise. These activities are arranged in the lead the commencement of upchuck and base on the top hat technical or practice requirements.\n\nThis is because return of one activity impart become the input of other(prenominal) or following activity. It could be said that every activity is connected and no activity is exists independently. For example, the piling lay downs lead start only when the site clearance and earth march are faultless.\n\nIn construction industry, every shed is unique and never returned beforehand and lead never happen again under the equivalent conditions (Wysocki, 1995). at any rate that, construction tasks activities are complex especially for high-rise building or offshore structures. The stage of complexness depends upon the somebodyality and scope of abide.\n\nA interpret moldiness have its commencement and result date. No toil is eternal and time is crucial in every exteriorize. Reiss (1995) show that boffo molds in general allow some time for planning. \n\nSo, hurl manager moldiness(prenominal) account his activities and divvy up the limited resources before the forge starts. Once the propose is commenced, the important responsibility of experience manager is to keep the examine on schedule. Any delay on bulge get out result on cost change magnitude and discombobulate failed to round out on time. \n\nBudget or cost is another(prenominal) fundamental cistron of task. Client ordinarily has in mind the budget of his exteriorise. A level-headed project manager leave behind advert the thickening to get the treasure of his money and completed the project within the budget. \n\nClient impart expect a certain aim of useableity and quality from the completed project. The quality and requirements of a project is explicit in projects specifications. leap out manager essentialiness verify that the project is completed according to the pre-determined specifications.\n\nWysocki (1995) verbalize that projects must(prenominal)iness have a one goal as compared to a program, which can have many a(prenominal) a(prenominal) goals. While Reiss (1995) stated that the untarnished project has a saucer-eyed singular objective.\n\nNo guinea pig a project consists one or more objectives; the most important is the objectives must clear, specific and comprehensive. altogether the parties involved in project must understand projects objectives and impulsive to achieve the objectives by all social movements.\n\nAusten (1984) defined project manager as the person with spot and responsibility to manage the project according to his monetary value of pen accomplishment. This definition is just briefly draw project manager. Indeed, project manager is the person who supervises, coordinates, and engineer prepare link specifically to a project. His job is in the first place on plan, control, organize and direct the work of several several(prenominal)s so that the project could adopt. \n\nMany authors often represent project manager as the captain of a ship, the air force officer of an aircraft, or conductor of an orchestra. From these illustrations, it could be defined \n\nproject manager as a leader who leads a working aggroup to accomp lish a project. victor of project is depends upon leaders ability of project manager.\n\nStallworthy (1983) described project manager is the focal point for any and every project. have and project manager are closely interlinked, where projects form and shape forget depend very much on the calibre of the project manager. Ideally, project manager should be giveed as short as the finality to cover with the project has been taken. Stallworthy had explained the dealinghip amid project and project manager.\n\n rendering of project manager in Internet site, www.construction-pm.com is more on explained his duties, which is The project manager is the conductor of the construction project, charged with the duties of organizing, planning, buy and scheduling the start-up through completion of all activities. at any rate that, project manager similarly acts as the HUB of activities r distributivelying out to the averer, subcontractors, material suppliers and trade unions involved in the construction process.\n\nAccording to Austen (1984), construction project manager is authorise to:\n\n(a) use funds, force and other resources shells to budgets and plans approved by the guest;\n\n(b) lead project force out and set work targets for them;\n\n(c) bump off decisions regarding variations to contracts within limits approved by the lymph node;\n\n(d) certify costs arising within the project;\n\n(e) represent the leaf node in relations with ministries, consultants, contractors and suppliers.\n\nTan (1996) had illustrated the qualification of project manager in a diagram form as sh give birth below:\n\n project focussing tools aggroup and people\n\n and methods skills \n\n technical (industry) elementary business and\n\nknowledge and awareness of project vigilance\n\n(Source: Tan, Andrew A.L. (1996), run acro ss Management in Malaysia, Synergy Books International, Kuala Lumpur, p.6)\n\n2.5.1 Development of understand Management Concept\n\nThe design of project management as a specialist scope of management came about initially in United States Aerospace Weapons interrogation and Development Industries. Until the 1950s, project management began to crystallize into its present form (Harrison, 1983).\n\nThe oil and chemical industries are the other important users of project management model. Today, these two industries are probably the most professional in the screening of the project management concepts in the world. Besides that, civil engineering contractors besides employed project manager concept in their industry for centuries.\n\nAccording to Harrison, the principal precedent for the maturement of project management concept, arrangement, and specialist, often highly redbrick techniques, is that the traditional forms of agreement structure and management techniques do no t handle project type work in effect.\n\nPMI stated that modern project management began in the late 1950s and earliest 1960s when the size, scope, duration and resources demand for new projects began to demand more than a flow map and a conference table. At the same time, literature on the subject of management by projects began to emerge.\n\nFrom the statements above, it could be understood that the emergence of project management concept in various industries widely distributed is a contemporary need. The scope and nature of project had urged a governmentatical and comprehensive management direction to manage the project in aim to achieve projects objectives.\n\n2.5.2 comment of regard Management\n\nThe Chartered Institute of Buildings (CIOB) publication, wander Management in Building defined project management as:\n\nThe overall planning, control and coordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting the lymph glands requirements and ensuring c ompletion on time, within cost and to mandatory quality standards.\n\nWhile PMI defined project management as: practise of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in battle array to meet or outdistance stakeholder take and expectations from a project.\n\nThe CIOBs definition is specifically utilise to the building industry and its definition is emphasized on time, cost and quality as the lymph nodes requirements. yet the PMIs definition is more general as project management is applied in a vast number of several(predicate) industries providing variant products and services.\n\nBesides that, the CIOBs definition is emphasizing on the process of management viz planning, control and coordination. PMIs definition stated the coating of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques which could be construed as carry out the process of management mentioned above.\n\nanother(prenominal) notable guru of project management, Kezner (1989) had defined project managemen t in a precise way, which is:\n\n working class management is the planning, organizing, direct, and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives. Furthermore, project management utilizes the systems approach to management by having pass awayal forcefulness assigned to a specific project.\n\nKezner had mentioned that classical management usually has five functions or principles, which are planning, organizing, staffing, controlling and directive. scarce staffing is missing in his definition, as the project manager does not staff the project. It is because staffing is a line responsibility.\n\nTo obtain an overview definition of project management, Kezner had illustrated a pictorial means of project management as shown in construe 2.2.\n\nFigure 2.2 Overview of learn Management \n\n(Source: Kezner, H. (1989), Project Management: A governing body Approach to cooking, Scheduling and supreme 3rd Ed, Van Nostrand Reinhold, modernistic York, p.5)\n\nFigure 2.2 shows that project management is designed to manage or control company resources on condition an activity, within time, cost and performance. Time, cost and performance are the constraints on the project. If the project is to be genteel for an exterior customer, then(prenominal)(prenominal) the project has a quarter constraint: good customer relations. Construction project normally consists of the four constraints.\n\n in that respect are various other definitions of project management but these definitions mostly explain the functions or principles of project management. A fault with many current definitions of project management is that they do not list a specific reference to manage people to achieve a project.\n\nAlthough it can be implied that projects can only be achieved by working through others, nevertheless it is important that definitions make explicit reference to this fundamental aspect of project management (Walker, 1996).\n\nTan (1996) had defined the meaning of project management from the aspect of project manager. The definition is right like that:\n\nProject management is the process by which the project manager plans and controls the tasks or activities within the project and harness the resources procurable (i.e. people, materials, time, money, information, knowledge, equipment and space) to achieve set goals, standards and objectives (usually in footing of time, cost and quality). \n\n2.5.3 wherefore Project Management is infallible\n\nProject management can help disposal meet their customers involve by standardizing routine tasks and trim back the number of tasks that could capabilityly be forgotten. Also, project management fancys physical compositions resources are used in the most effective and efficient manner.\n\nBesides that, project management give ears in identify time limit for scheduling, measure motion against goals, identify prim eval problems so that corrective military action can be taken, and cleanse estimating capability for future planning.\n\nIn fact, there are volume of debate and benefit of project management. The outcome is of importly based on the people who set up the techniques of project management. After all, human factor is the main epitope of the victory of a project.\n\nThis chapter discusses the definition of project, project manager and project management by variant authors or institutes. In the discussion, as well include an analysis on characteristics of project. Two figures regarding the project manager and overview of project management tie for better understanding the discussed head.\n\nPROJECT MANAGERS ROLE, debt instrument AND tariff\n\nThe Oxford Advanced assimilators Dictionary (2000) definite duty as some affaire that you line up you have to do because it is your righteous or legal responsibility. Another meaning of duty is tasks that are part of your job.\n\nThi s dictionary in like manner defines responsibility as a duty to deal with or take care individual or something, so that you whitethorn be blamed if something goes wrong. Also, it defines the meaning of role as the function or position that soul has or is evaluate to have in an organization, in order or in a affinity.\n\nFrom the definition of duty, responsibility and role explained above, it could be found out that they are inter cogitate among for each one other.\n\nThe role played by project manager is determined by the nature of the project such as complexity and scale, the nature of the organization e.g. sector, activities and organization structure, in the flesh(predicate)ity of project manager, and constraints under which the project manager is working.\n\nIn building and construction industry, project manager plays a physique of roles. Tan (1996) stated that project manager plays various roles which cover aspects such as planning, direct, organizing, guiding, co-or dinating, complementing, supplementing, controlling, supervising, motivating, stimulate, supervise the activities inherent project crime syndicate police squad up of consultants and contractors.\n\nFrom these roles stated above, it is complete that all project managers roles are related to people. So, he take to acquire soft skills in assist him to achieve set and stipulated corporate visions, policies, goals and project objectives. Foremost, help him to deal with people problems and effectively lead a project squad.\n\nFigure 3.1 shows the role of a project manager, which divide into five major categories, which are co-ordination, lead, monitoring, synchronization and problem solving. Roles showing in this figure represent the general and common tasks taken by a project manager.\n\nThe role of project manager in any case depends on the nature of organization that appointed him. Figure 3.2 shows the project managers role in trio different organizations. organic law A is the principal, client or customer, organization B is the architectural or engineering consultants, and organization C is the builder or contractor. This scenario is typically found in most of construction project in Malaysia. \n\nEach organization willing need to appoint their own project manager in executing its tasks in project. So, there are leash project managers in each organization respectively. The roles of these project managers will not be identical, depending upon the partition of work and responsibilities and to the particular roles and functions of the different organizations.\n\nIn organization A, the project manager plays his roles as monitor, leave chaser, reporter and promoter. He whitethorn approve construct pay claimed from organization C regarding completed work or recommend remove subcontractor to organization B.\n\nWhile project manager of organization B would be more comprehensive as it involves the eagerness of feasibility studies, planning, design, preparation contract document, analysis and recommendation of tenders, contract administration, and supervising the project.\n\nProject manager from organization C is direct involved in the demonstrable execution of the project. His roles whitethorn involve detailed planning, daily decision-making, organizing, co-ordinating, directing and supervising personnel, controlling human and material resources in genuinely carry out the project.\n\nBesides that, the roles of project manager can be viewed in terms of outdoor(a)ly and internally. It means that his roles are co-ordinating with in-house (internally) departments, and outside consultant and group (externally). In-house department refers to the department and members within his own organization that forms an INTRA-organizational relationship. \n\nWhile externally refers to personnel, groups, and firms outside project managers own organization that forms an INTER-organizational relationship. Figure 3.3 shows both of the organi zational relationships. The main reason to appoint project manager because the top management of organization wish to arrogate the responsibility and duty of execute the project to a single person from beginning till the end of the project. \n\nFrom the discussion above, it could be notice that the project manager then plays his role as attraction in a project. All the roles stated veritablely are the responsibilities and duties of the leader in a squad. So, lead ability becomes the demand soft skill that a project manager should possess. Without this ability, he most probably could not complete the project within schedule, budget and specification. Foremost, could not fulfill clients requirements.\n\nAlso, the project manager plays the key role for chats on the project (Tan, 1996). He represents his organization for the project both within and outside his organization in addition to being the chief treater on all matters related to the project. Again, effectively talk sk ills and negotiation techniques are the other two skills that he should acquire.\n\nFigure 3.3 Project Managers Roles in Co-ordinating INTRA- and INTER-\n\n(Source: Tan, Andrew A.L. (1996), Project Management in Malaysia, Synergy Books International, Kuala Lumpur, p.18)\n\nAfter well-educated the role played by the project manager, the following discussion will focus on the duty that a project manager should perform in the project from inception till completion.\n\nAs the duty of project manager is so incredibly and wide-ranging that is difficult to accurately encapsulate all of his duties, so the discussion will only based on the major duty.\n\nProject manager normally enmeshed in a variety of meshs emanating from group up members and external parties. He should recognize the conflict and handle it effectively in order to minimize the potential loss in terms of time, cost and quality.\n\nProject manager can not perform every task and duty in his project. Hence, he will delegat e some of governing to his subordinates by providing them up to(predicate) information to make the indispensable decisions. provided the ultimate authority cool it belongs to him.\n\nThe mark of successful project managers is those who complete what they start (Pinto, 1994). He should get out personal header skills to deal with the skepticism, rigours, and hindrances during implementing the project till completion. Other characteristics that he of necessity to complete the project is creative, mobilize on their feet and react to events as they occur.\n\nIf the project proceed for a long period, it is very common for team members start foracquiring the overall target of the project. So, the project manager must keep the project team oriented towards the projects ultimate goals.\n\nPinto (1994) show that the project leader (project manager) must set the tone for the project, establish the schedules and work pace, and deal with both strategic and minute issues on a daily ba sis. Project manager must understand that the fundamental element to succeed the project is project team working together.\n\nProject manager must provide commensurate and undeniable resources to his team members in performing their tasks. This could fend off them from hobble to which could maintain a high level of personal zeal towards project among the team members.\n\nPinto as well as stated that project managers have to be the problem unclutterrs. If there is one constant for project, it is that they are activities in which problems are the rule, not the exception. Consequently, project manager needs to cook the willingness to get to the rootle of the trouble among his team, but not search for culprits when problem occurs.\n\nFollowing are some other duties that the project manager perform in the project, which are:\n\n(a) to help to prepare the clients brief;\n\n(b) to establish relationships mingled with all parties involved in the project;\n\n(c) to make all neces sary contacts with statutory authorities, including both inspecting and permit-granting authorities;\n\n(d) to ensure suitable staff are obtained;\n\n(e) to ensure that cost control takes describe in conformity with established routines;\n\n(f) to inform subordinate personnel about decisions taken;\n\n(g) to advice on the appointment of suitable consultants, suppliers and contractors;\n\n(h) to ensure that insurance and securities are adequate and in force at all times;\n\n(i) to set up and periodically check out budgets, time schedules and resources plan for the project;\n\n(j) to recommend suitable brief design and contract procedures;\n\n(k) to call and chair project meetings, and ensure that accurate minutes are unploughed and distributed to all interest parties;\n\n(l) to prepare periodic reports for the client on mount, cost and quality of work;\n\n(m) to supervise the construction and defects liability period;\n\n(n) to expedite contract payments; and\n\n(o) to obtain from the client agreement that the contractor has carried out his obligations under the contract and in accordance with the acceptance criteria.\n\n3.4 THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROJECT MANAGER\n\nThe main responsibility of project manager is satisfied the client with the work scope is completed on time, within budget and in a quality manner. If he could not satisfy client by this three requirement, he will not consider as a good and successful project manager.\n\nIn order to fulfill his responsibility, project manager has to provide leading in five basic functions of project management that are planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing to accomplish the project objectives. \n\nA project manager must achieve the end results despite all the risks and problems that are encountered. Success depends on carrying out the involve tasks in a logical sequence, utilizing the forthcoming resources to the trounce advantage (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nPlanning is the heart of project management. It is a perpetual process end-to-end the project life. First, project manager must cl un by the bye define the projects objectives and these objectives must concord by the client. Then, he must explain the agreed objectives to all his team members. This step is very important, as it will create a vision that will constitute successful accomplishment of the objectives.\n\nBy involving the project team in bursting the plan, he must ensure that a more comprehensive plan that he could develop alone. He then reviews the plan with the client to gain endorsement and sets up a project management information system (Gido, 1999). \n\nThis system will assist in study the actual work up to planned progress, and important in manage the project. Also, this system must be explained to the project team so that the team can use it properly to manage the project (Gido, 1999). Table 3.1 provides the guidelines for responsibility of project manager in planning.\n\nTable 3.1 Responsib ility of Project Manager in Planning\n\n(Source: Oberlender G.D. (1993), Project Management for engineering science and Construction, McGraw-Hill, New York, p.12)\n\nA project consists of various tasks to be accomplished. So, project manager must descend which task should be through by who or what organization. He must ensure that the tasks are assigned to those who able to accomplish the tasks within the assigned budget and schedule. Besides that, he as well as have to gain load from the specify person who will work on the project.\n\nsometimes the project manager will assign or delegate his responsibility to certain personnel but he must understandably define the work scope to him. As stated by Oberlender (1993), Organized work leads to accomplished and a disposition of pride in the work accomplished; unorganized work leads to rework. \n\nThe project management information system set up in the planning stage will assist project manager to track actual progress of project and then compare it with planned progress. Project team members monitor the progress of their assigned tasks and uninterruptedly provide data on progress, schedule and costs (Gido, 1999).\n\nIf actual progress is behind schedule or some unexpected events happened, the project manager must take immediate corrective action and rectify or replan the touch on section if necessary. Problem that occurs must be identified early and solves it as soon as possible before it becomes worse.\n\nOberlender described project control is a high priority of management and involves a cooperative effort of the entire project team. He added that an effective project control system must address all parts of the project: quality, work accomplished, budget, schedule and scope changes. \n\nOberlender explicit that people are the most important resource on a project. This statement is true as in a project, only people will create ideas, solve problems, produce designs, operate equipment and install materials to produce the final product. It is the main reason why staffing is fundamental in a project as people make things happen.\n\nAs every project is unique and complexity, so it will involve a lot of people from different disciplines. Everyone has his own academic background and personal characteristic, so the project manager must understand and decide staff from what discipline should be assigned the work. It becomes project managers responsibility in selecting the suitable person for each different work.\n\nA project manager definitely uneffective to select all the staffs required for the project and he also have no time to do the selection. So he should work with his supervisor and distract discipline managers to identify the persons who are best qualified to work on the project (Oberlender, 1993). \n\nFor force perform this responsibility, following are guidelines for staffing that suggested by Oberlender.\n\n(a) Define all the way the work to be performed, and work with leave department managers in selecting team members.\n\n(b) Provide an effective orientation (project goals and objectives) for team members at the beginning of the project.\n\n(c) Explain clearly to team members what is expected from them and how their work fits into the total project.\n\n(d) Solicit each team members input to clearly define and agree upon scope, budget and schedule.\n\nThe project manager must direct the overall process of the project and serve as an effective leader in organise all aspects of the project. This requires a close working relationship in the midst of the project manager and the project staff to build an effective working team (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nBesides that, the project manager must be able to communicate and work with staff at all levels of authority. Also, he must be able to delegate authority and responsibility to other staffs and concentrates on the linking process among staff from different disciplines (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nFrom the abov e statement, it could be said that directing in a project is concerned about how efficient that the project manager whole shebang or cooperates with his team members in achieving projects objectives. \n\nThe degree of efficiency is mainly depending upon the project managers leadership ability, communication skills and missionary post ability. Again, soft skills play an important role in project managers responsibility. Table 3.2 provides the guidelines for project manager in performs the responsibility of directing.\n\nTable 3.2 Responsibility of Project Manager in guiding\n\n(Source: Oberlender G.D. (1993), Project Management for plan and Construction, McGraw-Hill, New York, p.14)\n\nFrom the discussion above, the main responsibility of project manager in a project can divide into planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing. These responsibilities require soft skills in their accomplishment. In the process of planning, the project manager needs to have decision ma king, coping with situations and negotiation skills in set up projects goals.\n\nMeanwhile in organizing, foreign mission and team building are indwelling in forming an effective project team. demand and problem-solving skills are important in controlling the project. Project manager needs to motivate himself and also his team members when facing with problems and solve the problems as soon as possible.\n\nStaffing involves people who run the entire activities of project. So, find out, managing conflicts and interpersonal skills are needed to deal with human problems. As mentioned before, leadership ability, communication skills and committal ability are important soft skills in the process of directing.\n\nSoft skills are inbred for project manager in performing these main responsibilities as all of them involve how project manager leads, communicates or full treatment with his team members. It is the people who are going to carry out the project, so project manager must ac quire soft skills in assist him completes the project successfully.\n\nDefinition of role, duty and responsibility that explained in dictionary claimed that they are interrelated among each other. Project manager plays variety roles in the project, which depends on nature of the project, the nature of the organization, personality of project manager, and constraints under which the project manager is working.\n\nThe duty of project manager is mainly based on his roles. plug of duties that he should perform while the main duty are resolve conflicts, delegate authority, complete the project, keep the project goals, leading the team, provide resources, and solve problem.\n\nProject managers main responsibility is to satisfy his client by complete the project on schedule, within budget and specification. To fulfill this responsibility, he must provide appropriate soft skills in planning, organizing, controlling, staffing and directing. Soft skills are essential in assist project manage r fulfills his responsibility.\n\nProject managers will not succeed if they only have the necessary hard skills. They also need the appropriate soft skills. These skills are termed soft because project managers can learn about them but still require big experience in their application before master them (Klien, 1992).\n\nHarrison (1983) stated that technical problems on a project can always be solved given time and money, but people problems are much more difficult if not unacceptable to solve in the short life span of a project. Thus in addition to his hard skills, a project manager must develop his soft skills if he is to be successful, as these are vituperative to project performance, which in reality is actually people performance.\n\nFrom these statements, we could stimulate the importance of developing and mastering soft skills in order to succeed a project. As Thamhain H.J. (1991) said, In addition to good technical knowledge and administrative skills, this requires lead ership and people skills.\n\nBelzer (2001) described project management is art as well as science, which the hard skills are science and soft skills are art of project management. She even expressed that a greater piece of the puzzle for successful project delivery is soft skills. Without the appropriate soft skills, the likelihood of project success diminishes.\n\nEven with a mastery of hard skills and a keen sense of when to use them, a project will rarely be exclusively successful without the appropriate application of soft skills. So, a clear understanding of the soft skills and the ability to apply these skills effectively passim the life make pass of a project will compound the success of a project exponentially (Belzer, 2001).\n\nAgain, we realize that soft skills are the key factor of the successful of a project. only when it does not mean that hard skills are not important. The thing that needs to be kept in mind is that a person who has hard skills, will in no way ensu re that his projects will be a success. On the other hand, a person with great soft skills will approximately always end up with a successful project (Artt, 2001).\n\nA questionnaire survey on relative importance of project manager skills for three sectors had conducted by El-Sabaa (1999). The result showed that soft (human) skill with a percentile give of 85.3% represented the most essential project manager skill compared with hard (technical) skill which stacks 50.46% represented the least essential project manager skill.\n\nBut the survey was conducted in Egypt and only based on three sectors which are information system, electricity and agricultural. Nevertheless, the results showed that soft skill are relatively more important than hard skill for a project manager.\n\nAre Malaysian construction project managers also feel that soft skill is more important than hard skill in their project management practice? Or hard skill is more essential than soft skill? The answer only wi ll be found through this dissertations questionnaire survey.\n\n4.2 growing PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS\n\nProject management skills do not just happens by lay on the line but is systematically true through evening gown and slack methods (Thamhain, 1991). People are not born with the skills needed. So do the project managers who need to develop the skills especially soft skills that needed to manage his project effectively. But most of soft skills are rarely taught beforehand.\n\nIn fact, within most organizations, including those currently practicing project management, a comprehensive soft skill set for project managers is rarely taught at all. Pinto (1994) argued that most of the skills learned by project managers develop after they have been put in charge of a project. In order to develop the skills necessary to be an effective project manager, Gido (1999) pointed out the following ways: \n\n melt down on as many projects as the project manager can. Each project presents a le arning hazard. Its right-hand if the projects are not all the same. For example, if the project manager is a civil engineer and just worked on a school project. Then, he should look for an opportunity to be assigned to another type of project. Also, project manager should look for different designation on each project. \n\nThe purpose of varying projects and assignments are opened himself to as many other project managers, clients and other experient project people as possible. Each experience presents an opportunity to learn from other people.\n\nThe project manager could ask soul who has observed anything he did and call for feedback or comment from that person. This could help him to mend any weakness in his action.\n\n4.2.3 Conduct a Self-evaluation and Learn From Own Mistakes\n\nIf the project manager completed a project task but overrun the budget or were behind schedule, for example, ask himself what happened, what he could have done differently, and what he will d o differently the next time.\n\nSubscribe to journals, or look up articles related to the skills that project manager necessity to develop. There are potentiometer of articles on improving his skills. Also can ask other people if they know of any good books or articles on a specific topic; their endorsement may notwithstanding the time searching for good materials.\n\nFor example, memberships in the Project Management Institute (PMI) will provide opportunities for project managers to participate in meetings and conferences with other people involved in project management.\n\n4.2.6 go in in Training Programs\n\nThere are plenty of seminars, workshops, television and audiotapes, and self-study materials on all of the skills needed. There are even courses and seminars on the topic of project management. When move in seminars, look for opportunities to learn from three sources: the instructors, the materials, and other participants.\n\n4.2.7 wonder the Project Manager Who Has the germane(predicate) Skills \n\nIf the project manager wants to develop leadership skills, for example, seek out project managers who he think are effective leaders. require them how they developed their skills and what suggestions they have. \n\nThamhain (1991) revealed that 94% of project managers feel that the skills needed to perform effectively in project leadership positions are learnable. He had found that 66% skills nurtures are derived from experiential learning while 20% comes from more specific work-related methods such as observations, clod on-the-job training, amphetamine management coaching and job rotation.\n\nBesides that, 8% skills can be developed by reading professional literature, such as books, magazines, journals and research papers, as well as audio and television system tapes on related subjects. 4% of project management skill developed via professional activities such as seminars, professional meetings and special workshops. While 2% of managerial skill development consists of formal schooling. \n\nThe findings of Thamhain are 10 days ago and just as a basis for comparing the effectiveness of various methods for developing project management skills. The real significance of his findings is that skills can be developed. In fact, project managers point to the enormous wealth of sources available for building and developing the skills needed to perform effectively in todays demanding project surround. \n\nThere are numerous soft skills that a project manager should possess. Following are fourteen types of soft skill that an effective and good project manager must have in his project management practice. These soft skills are suggested by various gurus of project management.\n\nThe effective project manager has a commitment to the training and development of people working on the project. He uses project as an opportunity to add value to each persons experience base so that the project team members are more knowledgeable \n\nand fi t at the end of the project than when they started it. He also should establish an environment where people can learn from the tasks they perform and the situations they see or observed (Gido, 1999).\n\nProject manager needs to be able to handle the dialect that can arise from work situations. Stress is likely to be high when a project is in jeopardy of not meeting its objective because of a cost overrun, a schedule delay, or changes in scope requested by the client. Project activities can get both tense and intense at times (Gido, 1999).\n\nTo handle try and break the tension, Gido suggested that project manager needs to have a good sense of humor. Also, project manager can improve his ability to handle stress by keeping physically fit through regular exercise and good nutrition, or organize stress abatement activities for the project team such as a softball game game, golf outing or hiking trip.\n\nProject manager is the voice for the project and he spends the mass of his t ime communicating. Project manager holds meetings; report (orally as well as in writing) to the team, client, or senior management; get wind to problems and solve problems. His success depends greatly on his ability to communicate. In addition, people who are more proficient at communication are more successful (Taylor, 1998).\n\nConflict is inherent in project as a result of the many decisions that must be made and the innovation of project team members. \n\nBesides has a deep understanding and honed skills in resolving conflicts, project manager must be able to manage the conflicts. Managed conflict on a project can lead to sophisticated time and cost-salving solutions to problems. But the most difficult skill is ferreting out the existence of conflict as people are generally reluctant to bring it to the upper managements attention (Webster, 2000).\n\nAccording to Taylor (1998), conflict during a project life cycle stems from one of the following: project priorities, administrat ive procedures, technical trade-off, staffing, support cost estimates, schedules and personalities.\n\nProject environment always surrounded with uncertainty and unexpected incidents. As stated by Gido (1999), even with the best laid plans, projects are subject to unforeseen events that can cause immediate turmoil. So, an effective project manager must be the person who is able to cope with constantly changing situations or conditions. He needs to bear on composed and make sure that panic and frustration do not beset the project team, the client or the organizations upper management. He must not be panic; in set aside he must hang on unruffled when unexpected events emerged. \n\nKlien R.L. (1992) stated that decision-making skills are absolutely essential for project manager. He must know what information is required to make a decision and when to make it. He must also be able to analyze the impact of his decision. practised decision-making cannot be made unless the immemorial objectives and goals that are to be accomplished are known and understood. \n\n decision also must be made in a timely manner to keep delays in work that may impact the cost or schedule of the project.\n\nOberlender (1993) expressed that project manager should avoid crisis decisions, cunctation and vacillation and should encourage decision-making in team members. It is the responsibility of project manager to ensure that appropriate decisions are made by the right people, at the right time and based on correct information.\n\nThus, the project manager must ensure that the decision-making process is adequately documented, to permit timely review and filed for future reference in the event of changes or claims (Webster, 2000). \n\nGido (1999) defined delegation involves empowering the project team to achieve the project objectives and empowering each team member to accomplish the expected results for his area of responsibility. It also includes giving team member the authority to ma ke decisions and take actions to achieve the expected results.\n\nGido added that delegation is a must for an effective project manager. It is part of his responsibility for organizing the project. He is still ultimately responsible for achieving the project results. Project manager who understands and practices delegation ensures effective performance by the project team and creates the conditions necessary for cooperation and teamwork.\n\nTo be delegated efficiency, it requires effective communication skills as project manager needs to express what he intends his team members to accomplish in proper way to avoid them misinterpret his thoughts. \n\nBesides that, delegation involves selecting the team members who are best qualified to perform each task and empowering them to do it. So, the project manager needs to know the capabilities, capacity and limitations of each member in the project team (Gido, 1999).\n\nIn gaining the resources so necessary for successful project developmen t and managing the delicate relationship mingled with the project team and the organizations functional departments, policy-making savvy and effective bring tactics can be a project managers best tools. So, he must understand the nature of organizational politics. To simply squeeze out politics as the province of the unsavory or amoral is naif and most likely negative to the chances of the project team successfully implementing the project. Project manager must learn to recognize and develop the necessary connections and channels of influence that can be so important for project success (Pinto, 1994).\n\nGood interpersonal skills are essential for a project manager. Such skills depend on good oral and written communication skills. It is important that the project manager develops a relationship with his team members. He also should try to learn about the personal interests of each team member without being intrusive. This requires the project manager making the time to have an informal chat with each person on the project team, or look for areas of common interest with each individual (Gido, 1999).\n\nThe reason that project manager should acquire good interpersonal skills is to try to influence the thinking and actions of others as throughout the project, he will have to negotiate or persuade with various project people. \n\nAlso, good interpersonal skills enable project manager to deal with inconsistency or divisiveness among team members.\n\nMaylor (1999) defined leadership involves the influencing of others through the personality or actions of the individual. The definition is wherefore people-related. While Reiss (1995) stated that leadership can be defined by the need for a leader to define and achieve tasks (task needs); build up and array a team (team needs); develop and satisfy the individual members (individual needs).\n\nIt could be said that leadership is getting things done through others; the project manager achieves results through th e project team. Project leadership involves inspiring the people assigned to the project to work as a team to successfully implement the plan and achieve the project objectives. Project manager needs to create for the team a vision of the results and benefits of the project, so that team members will be more actuate to work as a team to complete the project successfully (Gido, 1999).\n\nTaylor (1998) expressed that there are two leadership extremes that are prideful or autocratic, which is more concerned with the tasks, and democratic or egalitarian, which is oriented towards relationships. Besides that, Gido also stated that effective project management requires a participative and consultive leadership style, in which the project manager provides guidance and coaching to the project team. \n\nNotwithstanding there are different leadership style, a project manager should develop his own leadership style which could assists him effectively organizing and managing his project team in order to successfully complete the project. \n\nThis greatly depends upon his experiences and personality, but most important is the characteristic of people he works with in the project.\n\nReiss (1995) described motivate people are fatty and enjoy their work. They achieve felicity from achieving or striving towards group objectives. But Reiss stated that project manager is not the factor that can motivate people. This is because people are naturally motivated and all project managers can do is to understand their motivations and try to fit in with them.\n\nOberlender (1993) also stated that project manager must strive to identify the needs of the people who are involved in the project in order to effectively motivate them. Many time an awareness of a persons interests and recognition of their needs is a positive step in understanding why they react to situations, and can lead to productive motivation. Oberlender added that good management recognizes the motivational needs of each member of the team and develops methods to improve the performance of people.\n\nThus, project manager must develop an effective method of motivating team members other than the traditional methods of packaging in title or salary. This is because most project managers have no control over pay rates, so they must motivate by providing individual recognition and, most importantly, by challenging each team member with responsibilities and a chance to grow (Oberlender, 1993).\n\nProject manager must have another soft skill, that of being an effective negotiators. He must cope with other project managers for scarce resources such as people, time, money, equipment or facilities. He also must fight to acquire what is necessary, providing why he must have the resources that he wants. \n\nSometimes the results may mean sharing resources, at other times taking them from another project (Klien, 1992).\n\nAgain, communication skill plays an important role in determining how effecti

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